But which social media sites have the largest portion of users getting news there? How many get news on multiple social media sites? And to what degree are these news consumers seeking online news out versus happening upon it while doing other things? As part of an ongoing examination of social media and news , Pew Research Center analyzed the scope and characteristics of social media news consumers across nine social networking sites.
This study is based on a survey conducted Jan. News plays a varying role across the social networking sites studied. To what extent do the various news audiences on social media overlap? Just one-in-ten get news on three or more. Differences also emerge in how active or passive each group of news users is in their online news habits more generally. YouTube, Facebook and Instagram news users are more likely to get their news online mostly by chance, when they are online doing other things.
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Alternatively, the portion of Reddit, Twitter and LinkedIn news users who seek out news online is roughly similar to the portion that happen upon it. A look at the demographic characteristics of news consumers on the five social networking sites with the biggest news audiences shows that, while there is some crossover, each site appeals to a somewhat different group.
Instagram news consumers stand out from other groups as more likely to be non-white, young and, for all but Facebook, female. LinkedIn news consumers are more likely to have a college degree than news users of the other four platforms; Twitter news users are the second most likely.
The demographics of other sites can be found in the Appendix. Social media news consumers still get news from a variety of other sources and to a fairly consistent degree across sites. For example, across the five sites with the biggest news audiences, roughly two-in-ten news users of each also get news from nightly network television news; about three-in-ten turn to local TV. One area that saw greater variation was news websites and apps.
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Roughly half of Twitter and LinkedIn news consumers also get news from news websites and apps, while that is true of one-third of Facebook and YouTube news users. These results revealed that relative to vector control Fig. Input of Gal4 plasmid DNAs was first optimized in large-scale transfection studies to yield detectable and equivalent levels of Gal4 fusion proteins, as determined by Western blotting of cell extracts Fig.
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These DNA amounts were then scaled down proportionately to optimize transcriptional response and to avoid nonspecific squelching data not shown. Cotransfecting increasing amounts of Gal4-TAD resulted in significant and dose-dependent synergistic responses of , , and fold, showing that the Pit-1 TAD has strong activity in this assay Fig. Gal4 expression constructs amounts were optimized to achieve equivalent levels of protein expression, and total amount of pCDNA3.
Inset shows a Western blot probed with anti-Gal4 antibody. Total amount of pCDNA3. Cells were treated with ethanol left panel , or TSA in ethanol right panel at 5 h after electroporation, grown for 18 h, and then processed for luciferase analysis as in Materials and Methods. Again, using Western blotting analyses, we first optimized plasmid DNA amounts that would yield equivalent Gal4-fusion protein expression levels in GH4 pituitary cells Fig. Cotransfection of Gal4 DBD resulted in a further 1.
The same experimental paradigm, performed in the presence of 0. Cotransfection of Gal4 DBD further enhanced this basal fold response by approximately fold Fig. Some differences in the apparent mobility of these constructs were apparent. At 24 h after transfection, cells were harvested and total light units were measured Materials and Methods.
Cells were harvested 24 h after transfection and total light units were measured Materials and Methods. Specifically, Pit-1 binding to the monomeric 1D site, which is juxtaposed to an estrogen response element in the distal enhancer of the rPRL promoter, dictates use of a Pit-1 amino-terminal synergy domain that is not used if Pit-1 binds to a dimeric site on the proximal rGH promoter In an even more elegant study, using biochemical assays, x-ray crystallography, and mouse models, Scully et al.
This observation raises the question whether it is the DNA sequence context of the Gal4 binding site or the context of the surrounding protein, Pit-1 vs. Chimeric-mutagenic primer pairs are as follows. All transfections were done in duplicate or triplicate. Extracts were subjected to two additional cycles of thawing at 37 C , vortexing, and freezing. Finally, extracts were centrifuged at 13, rpm for 10 min at 4 C. Supernatants were collected and protein concentrations determined by Bradford assay Bio-Rad in a well format.
Each data point represents the average of at least two transfections, and each experiment was replicated two or more times.
Activities are calculated by dividing by the average relative light units for promoter-only or as indicated in figure legend. The se for the promoter-only bar which is set to 1 reflects the average of the se from independent experiments. Relative levels of expressed proteins were monitored by Western blotting, as previously described Lysates were then passed repeatedly through a gauge needle and boiled for 7 min. Molecular weight marker proteins Precision Plus, Bio-Rad were used to estimate protein size.
Current address of D. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.
Etude In A Major, OP. 27, No. 26
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Open in new tab Download slide. Purification of growth hormone-specific transcription factor GHF-1 containing homeobox. Search ADS. A tissue-specific transcription factor containing a homeodomain specifies a pituitary phenotype. Dwarf locus mutants lacking three pituitary cell types result from mutations in the POU-domain gene pit An alternatively spliced Pit-1 isoform altered in its ability to trans-activate. Differential splicing of the GHF1 primary transcript gives rise to two functionally distinct homeodomain proteins.
Functional isoforms of Pit-1 generated by alternative messenger RNA splicing. Van As. Complementary DNA cloning and ontogenic expression of pituitary-specific transcription factor of chickens Gallus domesticus from the pituitary gland.